In Dutch, a past participle cannot serve as an auxiliary verb. To make the verb act as an auxiliary verb, we must transform the past participle into an infinitive:
when the past participle itself
serves as an auxiliary verb,
it turns into an infinitive
In the examples below, the auxiliary verbs are in italics, the independent verbs in bold. The verbs that undergo a transformation from participle to infinitive are underlined.
Note, how the independent participle turns into an infinitive when it serves as an auxiliary verb to support another (independent) verb.
|Annelies had een ijsje gewild.
||Annelies had wanted an ice-cream.
|Thijmen had een ijsje willen eten|
(not: gewild eten).
|Thijmen had wanted to have an ice-cream.
The independent participle gewild turns into the infinitive willen when it has to support eten.
|Sanne is naar Amsterdam gekomen.
||Sanne has come to Amsterdam.
|Liesbeth is komen lopen|
(not: gekomen lopen).
|Liesbeth has come walking (lit).
The past participle gekomen becomes the infinitive komen.
|We hebben een uur staan wachten |
(not: gestaan wachten).
|We have been waiting for an hour.
|Ik had beter moeten weten|
(not: gemoeten weten).
|I should have known better.
The above only applies to the situation where the past participle serves as an auxiliary verb. Consider the following example:
|Amir zou zijn gekomen.
||Amir would have come.
Here, the past participle is the independent verb and hence does not turn into an infinitive.