These four verbs do not have much in common other than that they are followed by 'te'. The reason why they get their own page is that they could not be categorized anywhere else.
||hij durft niet in het openbaar te spreken
||he does not dare to speak in public
||ik heb vandaag veel te doen
||I have got a lot to do today
||to need to
||wij hoeven niet te wachten
||we do not need to wait
||to come (to)
||het komt te vervallen
||it (will) comes to expire
Durven is a regular verb, hoeven is a strong verb and hebben and komen are completely irregular.
A few notes:
- The construction hebben te always means to have to (and has nothing to do with to possess). It is used in combination with a quantity, e.g. "I have a lot to do", "We do not have much to clean", etc.
- The verb hoeven can only be used in a negating sentence (with 'not', 'never', 'nowhere', etc.).
- Komen te always means to be about to in the sense that something will happen.
The perfect tense
Because a past participle cannot serve as an auxiliary verb, we have to use infinitives instead. In the perfect tense, we drop te.
|Hij heeft niet in het openbaar durven spreken.
||He has not dared to speak in public.
|Wij hebben niet hoeven wachten.
||We did not need ('have not needed') to wait.
|Het is komen vervallen.
||It has come to expire.
The observant reader may have missed hebben in the list. The reason why I did not give an example is because it would have been an ugly construction that we would never use: The present perfect of hebben is heb gehad. If we turn the past participle (gehad) into an infinitive, we would get "Ik heb hebben ..."