strong verbs-patterns

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dana m
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strong verbs-patterns

Post by dana m » Thu Sep 11, 2014 5:38 am

Hello,
I am learning about strong verbs and I think that I discerned certain patterns. In English, for example, there is a group of verbs with an i-a-u patern or i-ou-ou. Could be the same in Dutch and the patterns are:
i-o
ij-ee-e
There are more patterns?
Thank you

Teodor
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Re: strong verbs-patterns

Post by Teodor » Fri Sep 12, 2014 9:00 am

I don't know any verb where ij bekomes e, but it does usually turn into an ee indeed: ik leek; het bleek, jij keek, ik bleef... The past participle of these verbs is written with an 'e' (geleken, gebleken, gekeken, gebleven,...) but that's because of another spelling rule; it's still pronounced with an 'ee'.

'aa' often becomes 'oe': ik vroeg, ik kloeg, ik droeg, ik groef, ik sloeg, ik ervoer,...
'ik joeg' (from: jagen) is, apparently, a rare example of a new strong verb, formed by analogy with all the other -agen verbs. Note that 'ik jaagde' is also still used; I've got no idea which one is used more often.

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Re: strong verbs-patterns

Post by ngonyama » Sat Sep 13, 2014 3:18 pm

Yes there are 7 classes of strong verbs:

1) ij - ee - e blijken - bleek - gebleken
2) ie - oo - o bieden - bood - geboden or ui - oo - o ruiken - rook -geroken
3) (i or e)+nasal/liquid, e.g. in - on - on winnen - won - gewonnen zingen - zong - gezongen el -ol -ol melken - molk -gemolken
3b) some e+liquid have ie in preterit sterven - stierf - gestorven helpen - hielp - geholpen
4) e - a - aa - o breken - brak - braken - gebroken
5) e - a - aa - e vergeten - vergat - vergaten - vergeten
6) a - oe - a varen - voer - gevaren
7) vowel - ie - same vowel roepen - riep - geroepen; lopen - liep - gelopen; vangen - ving - gevangen

In class 4 and 5 there is a remnant of the old distinction between preterit singular and preterit plural in that the vowel alternates between closed and open.

In Middle Dutch (before 1500) that was more common e.g. in class 2 and you really had 4 forms:

helpen - halp - holpen - geholpen

Now the preterit forms all have ie: hielp(en)

Strong verbs are in the minority numerically, but they are also amongst the most frequently used.

Some verbs of class 6 and 7 have lost their strong preterit and replaced it by a weak one:

bakken - bakte - gebakken (originally bakken - biek - gebakken; still in early 19th century)

See e.g. http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/Categorie ... Nederlands

See e.g. WikiWoordenboek http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/Categorie ... Nederlands

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