Inti qieghed hawn: Grammar > Pronouns > BreadCrumbs

Stressed ('marked') object pronouns
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We have separate words for marked and unmarked me/mij (me), je/jou (you), ze/hun (them). In Flanders, they use unmarked ze next to marked haar (her). In the Netherlands, they only use haar.

Hem (him), ons (us), and jullie (plural you) do not have separate words for marked and unmarked pronouns. If we want to stress het (it) or inanimate ze (them), we normally use a demonstrative pronoun.

For an explanation about how to place emphasis on a word, see Marked and unmarked subject pronouns?.

English Dutch - unmarked Dutch - marked
me me mij
you je jou
her haar [ze] haar
it [het-nouns] het dit, dat
See demonstratives?
it [de-nouns] hem deze, die
See demonstratives?
them [persons] ze hun/hen
them [inanimate] ze demonstrative?
deze, die


In the examples below, the part of the sentence that is stressed, is underlined.

Me and mij:

Unmarked Ze zei het tegen me. She said it to me.
Marked Ze zei het tegen mij, niet tegen jou. She said it to me not to you.

Je and jou:

Unmarked Ik praat tegen je. I am talking to you.
Marked Ik praat tegen jou, niet tegen haar. I am talking to you, not to her.

Ze and haar:

Unmarked [Flanders]* Ik heb ze een brief gestuurd. I have sent her a letter.
Marked Haar heb ik een brief gestuurd (niet hem). I have sent a letter to her (not to him).

(*) Recall that the Dutch do not have a separate unmarked form for haar (her).

Het and dit/dat:

Unmarked Ik wel het niet lezen. I do not want to read it.
Marked Dit wil ik niet zien (maar dat andere boek wil ik wl lezen). This I do not want to read (but I would like to read that other book).

Hem and deze/die

Unmarked Ik wel hem niet zien. I do not want to see it.
Marked Deze wil ik niet zien (maar die andere film wil ik wl zien). This (one) I do not want to see (but I would like to see that other movie).

Recall that we only use a demonstrative pronoun (deze or die) if hem refers to an inanimate object. For persons, the marked form is the same as the unmarked form (hem).

Ze and hun/hen (for persons):

Unmarked Hij ging met ze mee. He went with them.
Marked Hij ging met hen mee in plaats van met ons. He went with them instead of with us.

Ze and deze/die (inanimate):

Unmarked [de schoenen]
Ik draag ze elke dag.
[the shoes]
I wear them every day.
Marked [de schoenen]
Die draag ik elke dag.
[the shoes]
Those I wear every day.

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L-ahhar aggornament June 28, 2008 ::