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The past participle
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Tradott mill-Ingliz minn ...

For the perfect tense, we use a past participle. For the conjugation of the past participle, we must distinguish between t-verbs and d-verbs? (just like we did for the simple past?). To establish whether we are dealing with a t-verb or a d-verb, we have to look at the last letter of the verb stem. If this is t, h, f, c, k, s or p, ("pocket fish") it is a t-verb, all other verbs are d-verbs.

past participle = ge + [stem] + t or d

Whether the past participle ends in a -t or -d depends of course on whether the verb is a t or a d-verb?.

maken to make stem: maak
(t-verb)
past participle:
ge + maak + t
= gemaakt
luisteren to listen stem: luister
(d-verb)
past participle:
ge + luister + d
= geluisterd

In Dutch I have made becomes: ik heb gemaakt .

The ge + stem + t/d rule applies to most regular verbs, but there are also verbs that need an extra or different treatment.

Two points to bear in mind for the past participle:

1. A past participle never ends in double t or double d

If the stem ends in -t we do not add an extra t to the past participle, if a stem ends in -d, we skip the extra d. This is actually not really an exception, if you remember that a syllable never ends in two identical consonants.

rusten to rest does not become:
ge + rust + t
but: ge + rust
= gerust
bloeden to bleed does not become:
ge + bloed + d
but: ge + bloed
= gebloed

2. Prefixes be-, er-, ge-, her-, ont- and ver -

All verbs that start with the prefixes: be-, er-, ge-, her-* , ont-, and ver- do not get ge - before the past participle, because the prefix replaces ge -: the rule for forming the past participle is here: (no ge) stem + t/d.

infinitive in english past participle
verdelen to distribute stem+d = verdeeld
geschieden to happen stem (no extra 'd') = geschied
betalen to pay stem+d = betaald
ontdekken to discover stem+t = ontdekt
erkennen to acknowledge stem+d = erkend
herkennen to recognize stem+d = herkend

In the category of her-words, there are a few exceptions:

infinitive in english past participle
herbergen to accommodate ge+stem+d = geherbergd
herhuisvesten to relocate ge+stem (no t ) = geherhuisvest
herstructureren to restructure ge+stem+d = geherstructureerd

A very useful web site is link esternawww.verbix.com. It conjugates Dutch verbs for you in all eight tenses.


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L-ahhar aggornament May 03, 2007 ::